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  How Do Air Compressors Work?
Posted by: gap0922ing - Today, 01:51 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

How Do Air Compressors Work?

    Air compressors are an invaluable tool for both industrial work and DIY at home, and there are several different types to choose from depending on the job you need doing. Air compressors have a number of uses, such as to fill gas cylinders for industrial purposes and scuba diving, to create the power needed to run pneumatic tools and spray guns, for pumping up automotive tyres, and within heating and air conditioning systems.

    As we’ve touched on here, there are myriad uses for screw air compressor both in commercial and domestic environments. Within the category of air guns, there are several types, each of which is suitable for a different job. We’ve compiled a guide to all the major types of air compressor, how they work and how they differentiate from one another.

    Whether you’re an engineering manager or in charge of facilities for your company, being informed about how air compressors function and what they’re used for is handy and can help you make the proper decisions for your business and industry.

    Get all the information you need to know about air compressors, complete with the infographic below, with our comprehensive guide. We’ll address the benefits of using premium air compressors in your industry, as well as the questions of ‘what are compressors?’ and ‘how does a compressor work?’, covering all the essentials in one convenient place.

    The infographic below shows how a Hydrovane series rotary sliding vane air compressor works

    Since their invention in the 19th Century, mechanical, automated air compressors have continued to be one of the most widely used tools in industrial settings. Air compressors provide a continuous stream of power that is safer and cooler than many other forms of energy. For many industries, such as metal work and mining environments, air compressors are an absolutely essential tool. After the basic utilities of water, gas and electric, compressed air is actually considered to be the fourth utility.

    Air compressors are also an affordable choice of tool for many manufacturing jobs, as they are durable, and high quality types require minimal maintenance and repairs.

    Between the two main categories of compressor – the scroll (piston) compressor and the rotary screw (reciprocating) compressor, you have a tool for every type of industrial and commercial setting, as well as various domestic uses.

    The most common types of regular screw air compressor are single and dual phase, both of which operate in the same fundamental way, only dual phase has one more step involved in the compression process. In a single phase compressor, there is one chamber and the air is compressed a single time; in a dual phase, there are two chambers and the air is put through compression twice.

    Be careful not to confuse single and dual phase compressors with the number of cylinders a compressor has. Both types of compressor use two cylinders; one-cylinder compressors are less common, because air balancing is made easier with two cylinders. The difference between single and dual stage compressors is that in the former the cylinders are both the same size; in the latter they are different sizes.

    How Do Single and Dual Phase Compressors Operate?

    Single phase compressors, also referred to as piston air compressors, works in a relatively simple and straightforward way. First, air is drawn into the cylinder; from here, it is compressed once by a single piston movement within a vacuum system.

    The power of this compression is measured in PSI (pounds per square inch) or Bar – the higher the PSI/Bar, the more power the compressor has. In a single stage air compressor, the air is typically compressed at a rate of around 120 PSI (8.2 Bar). After the air has been compressed, it is sent into the storage tank from where it is dispelled into various tools as a source of energy.

    Dual phase compressors operate the same way, except there are two stages of compression, rather than just one. After the first round of compression, the air is sent into a second chamber, where it is compressed for the second time, at a rate of around 175 PSI (12.1 Bar). After this, the air is sent to a storage tank in which it is cooled down and ready for application.

    Both types of compressor are typically powered by either an electric or petrol motor, which drives the piston and causes the compression to happen.

    Single Phase and Dual Phase Applications

    Both function in fundamentally the same way and can be used for similar tasks, such as operating a pneumatic drill or other high-powered tools such as those found in a manufacturing plant.

    Single phase compressors tend to be used within domestic settings for smaller workshop jobs done with handheld tools, such as woodwork, metal work and general DIY.

    Dual phase compressors, on the other hand, are better for larger scale work in operations such as operations needed in vehicle repair shops, pressing factories and other plants where parts are manufactured.

    Oil-Free vs. Oil-lubricated Air Compressors

    Another way to compare variable frequency air compressor is to look at whether they use oil or not – there are oil-free and oil-based / lubricated compressors and both are suited to slightly different jobs. For the air to be drawn into the chamber safely and effectively, the piston needs to be in top working order. To work properly, the piston must be lubricated with oil.

    With regards to lubrication, there are two main types of compressor to choose from: oil-free and oil-based. The oil is used on the cylinder to ensure the compression goes smoothly.

    The Difference Between Oil-Free and Oil-Based Compressors

    Oil-free air compressors already have a lubricated cylinder (often with a non-stick material such as Teflon) and therefore require no further maintenance to work properly. Oil-based compressors require oil to be added to the piston area and changed regularly. Just how often you need to change the oil will be outlined in the manufacturer’s manual that came with your compressor.

    On the whole, oil-free compressors tend to weigh a lot less than oil-based compressors, as not only do they not have the weight of the oil, but they are more compact machines, requiring fewer separate parts to make them work. Oil-free compressors, being less complex in design, also tend to be more affordable than oil-based compressors.

    However, although they’re more weighty and expensive, oil-based compressors have their benefits. For one thing, they are strong and durable, and usually have a longer lifespan than their oil-free counterparts. This is usually because over time the greasing material (usually Teflon) begins to wear down and lose its lubrication abilities.

    Another important factor that should be considered when choosing between an oil-free and oil-based compressor is that the oil-less version tends to heat up faster and to a higher temperature than those which use oil. Compressors without oil also make a lot more noise than those with, so if you want a less noisy workplace, this is a factor to consider too.

    Oil-Free and Oil-based Compressor Applications

    Oil-free compressors are a great option for those in need of a lightweight, low maintenance tool for home use. Oil-based compressors are better suited to heavy duty jobs and commercial and industrial use, as although they’re generally heavier and require more maintenance, they are also more robust and versatile.

    For industrial purposes and extensive, day-long use, oil-based compressors are by far the best option. If you’re looking to invest in quality compressors for your business, opting for oil-based machines is almost certainly the best route to take.

    Within an industrial or commercial setting, there are numerous uses for oil-based PM screw air compressor, including:

    Vehicle painting and repairs

    Sanding and woodwork

    Creating snow banks in ski centres

    Tools within dentistry and other medical environments

    Pneumatic construction tools such as nail guns

    Air cleaning tools such as blowguns

    Oil-free compressors can be used for domestic use, such as small-scale jobs like blowing up balloons, home workshop and DIY jobs. They are also largely used in industries where there is a need to avoid the product or consumer coming into contact with oil: food and beverage, pharmaceutical and dental, for example. In these sensitive applications, the consequences of having oil contamination in the air are too high to risk, so having an oil free compressor is a must. There is compressed air quality testing from the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) which oil-free technology can help you achieve.

    Fixed vs. Variable Air Compressors

    Another factor to consider when choosing the right type of air compressor for your industry is whether they’re equipped with fixed or variable speed. Let’s take a closer look at what these different types of compressor can do for you.

    The main difference between air compressors that use a fixed speed system and those that use variable speed is the manner in which the motor gets its power. The compression element is much the same across all machines, but the way the motor operates has an effect on the usability, efficiency and lifespan of the machine.

    How Do VSD Compressors Work?

    Variable speed compressors (often referred to as VSD (Variable Speed Drive) or VFD (Variable Frequency Drive) – compressors) operates by automatically adjusting the motor speed in accordance with the demand for air. This happens through a system that converts voltage from the mains power supply into a variable frequency.

    Power is drawn through a converter, inside which it is converted twice. First, it converts AC power into DC power using diodes. A capacitor then cleans the AC, and then converts it to DC using a transistor, which acts as switches. These switches control the frequency of power sent to the motor, which in turn controls the speed of the motor.

    A VSD air compressor contains this technology, allowing the speed of the motor and the amount of air compression used to be closely controlled. There are pros and cons to both variable speed compressors and their counterpart, fixed speed compressors – check them out below to decide which one is best for your industry.

    Fixed Speed Pros and Cons

    Fixed speed air compressors send a consistent, continuous stream of power into the motor, which gives you a reliable frequency in all your air compression jobs. The initial cost of fixed speed compressors is lower than that of variable speed compressors, is easier and cheaper to maintain and is a must-have within industries where the power demand is continuous.

    This type of compressor is, however, less efficient than its variable speed counterpart. It is also less efficient at saving energy, and can therefore be more expensive to run, with fewer incentives available too.

    Variable Speed Pros and Cons

    Variable speed air compressors allow you to control the voltage and the frequency of the power in the motor, giving the user more agency over the tool. This type of compressor is more efficient when it comes to power usage, as you can easily control your output and only use what you need. Many industries will find that this type of air compressor is ideal, as it can be used in line with the demand of the job. When less power is needed, you can easily adjust the speed of the compressor, saving money and protecting the environment at the same time.

    The downsides of a variable speed compressor are that there is a higher initial capital cost to pay, and maintenance and repairs are more expensive too. They are also not well suited to applications that require a continuous stream of power.

    Piston Compressors, Scroll Compressors & Rotary Screw Compressors

    So far in this article, all the compressors mentioned are operated using pistons, which is a generic system for one type of compressor – the scroll compressor, also known as a reciprocating air compressor. The other type is the rotary screw compressor, which doesn’t have pistons and operates in a slightly different way.

     

    Here’s a quick overview of how scroll compressors and rotary screw / reciprocating compressors work, and what the unique benefits are of each of them.

    Scroll Compressors

    Scroll compressors are a type of piston compressor, and are also called reciprocating compressors. These are the most common type of two stage air compressor, due to affordability and general availability. But how does a reciprocating air compressor work? The piston system works by having a piston travel downwards, decreasing the pressure inside its internal cylinder through the creation of a vacuum. The sudden change in pressure causes the door of the cylinder to be forced open, and draw air in. When the piston travels up again, the air is forced out of the cylinder at a much higher pressure point. This continues in a reciprocating, ‘scroll’ pattern, hence its name.

    Pros and Cons of Scroll Compressors

    Pros:

    Cools down quickly

    More efficient use of energy

     

    Cons:

    Higher initial capital cost

    More complex parts – harder to maintain

    Rotary Screw Compressors

    Rather than using pistons, rotary screw compressors rely on rollers to do the compression. Rollers are positioned just off the middle of the central shaft to ensure that one side of the roller is always in contact with the wall. The rollers are powered, rotating extremely fast, causing the same result as scroll compressors: they draw in air at a low pressure and force it out at a higher pressure.

    Pros and Cons of Rotary Screw Compressors

    Pros:

    Good power capacity

    Lower initial capital price

    Easy to maintain

    Cons:

    Limited cooling abilities

    Require continuous maintenance checks

    How Do Low Noise Air Compressors Work?

    One complaint often heard around air compressors is that some of them are noisy due to friction and a power source, which can be distracting and inconvenient for both commercial and domestic use. The industry has risen to deal with these complaints however, and there are several low noise air compressors to choose from, offering a decibel rating of around 40 dB.

    40 dB is considered low noise; 60 dB is considered the safest decibel level for compressors; anything over 85 dB could cause long-lasting damage to your hearing, and you should avoid being exposed to this level for extended periods of time.

    Low noise and silent air compressors are available in both oil-free and oil-based versions, so just how is the silencing effect achieved?

    As well as choosing compressors with low decibel levels, one aspect of this technology that makes a big difference is the inclusion of an acoustic chamber for containing the noise. Another tip is to opt for electric-powered compressors, rather than gas-powered, as the former type of power source makes for a quieter machine.

    The Bottom Line

    Which type of air compressor you go for depends on a variety of factors. You first need to consider what application the compressors will be used for? Do you need it for continuous, ongoing use in large industrial machinery, or will it be used sporadically? Your answers to these questions will help you decide on whether to go for variable or fixed speed compressors.

    Another question that you must factor into your decision is: how much do you want to spend? Remember that the initial price of a quality compressor is not the only expense associated with a compressor; consider also the cost of the power needed to run the machine, plus any related ongoing maintenance and repair costs. How much time and energy will investing in high quality compressors save your company? These are all important calculations that should be made before making your decision.

    Get in touch below if you wish to find out more.

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  Effectiveness of Air Filters and Air Cleaners in Allergic Respiratory Diseases
Posted by: gap0922ing - Today, 01:50 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

Effectiveness of Air Filters and Air Cleaners in Allergic Respiratory Diseases

    Air filtration is frequently recommended as a component of environmental control measures for patients with allergic respiratory disease. Residential air filtration can be provided by whole house filtration via the home’s heating, ventilation, or air conditioning system, by portable room air cleaners, or a combination of the two. Appliances to filter the sleep breathing zone also have been developed. High-efficiency whole house filtration, high-efficiency particulate air sleep zone air filtration, and high-efficiency particulate air room air cleaners all appear to provide various degrees of benefit. Recent studies of various types of filtration, used alone or as part of more comprehensive environmental control measures, are reviewed.

    Keywords: Air cleaner, Air filter, Air filtration, Breathing zone, CADR, Clean air delivery rate, Environmental control, Furnace filter, HEPA, HVAC, Indoor air, Indoor allergens, Intervention measures, Ozone, Particulate matter, PM, Room air cleaner, Sleep breathing zone, Ventilation, Whole house filtration


    Environmental control practices (ECPs) are a group of measures recommended to reduce exposure to indoor allergens (eg, dust mites, household pets, cockroaches, mold, mice) or nonallergic triggers (eg, environmental tobacco smoke [ETS], wood smoke, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter [PM]) [1]. Historically, many of the common suggestions have been empiric and not based on scientific data or evidence-based clinical trials. As a better understanding of the impact of the characteristics of housing stock [2, 3] and occupants [4] on the indoor living environment has evolved, more effective measures have been identified. These may include modification of the occupant’s habits, remediation, and/or modification of the dwelling and its furnishings, structure, or ventilation, including the use of air filtration. One major drawback in many ECP studies has been the focus on a single allergen (eg, dust mites [5]) or intervention (eg, room air filtration for cat or dog allergy [6–8]). In fact, most allergic individuals have polysensitivity to multiple allergens. ECPs are therefore much more likely to be beneficial if targeted against triggers or allergens known to be problematic for the individual.

    In the case of filtration, little attention has been paid to variations among the various appliances themselves, and no clinical comparisons have been done between the benefits of whole house filtration (WHF) versus those of portable room air cleaners (PRACs). According to the most recent American Housing Survey, 75% of US housing units have ducted forced air heat, while 63% have ducted central air conditioning [9]. When used in combination, these ducted heating systems are termed heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) systems. HVAC systems offer the opportunity for WHF, but poorly maintained or contaminated systems may actually increase the risk of asthma and other allergic respiratory symptoms [10]. Simple forgetfulness by the occupants in replacing the filter at suggested maintenance intervals may be the most common issue. HVAC service technicians frequently find round air filter that have not been changed for years when providing repair or maintenance services [11]. Dirty filters themselves can become a source for air contamination by allergens, particularly fungal spores [12], and can then be trapped, colonized, and released downstream as the overloaded filter fails [13]. Other issues, including air bypass from poor filter fit and duct leakage, may further confound the effectiveness of filtration in HVAC systems.


    A barrier to proof of effectiveness for ECPs is the complexity of the gene–host–environment interactions. Expectations have been tainted by the fact that short-term drug studies of only a few weeks’ or months’ duration can show statistical effectiveness for improvement of symptoms. However, despite major advances in the drugs available for the treatment of allergy and asthma, none have been shown to arrest disease progression permanently. Improved understanding on how to avoid or reduce triggers would be expected to have this benefit. This may not occur in the short term. Observational epidemiology has already led to the recognition of a wide range of triggers found in the indoor environment, ranging from dust mite to diesel exhaust particulates. Applied epidemiologic studies are helpful in understanding targeted avoidance and prevention of disease progression.


    Morgan et al. [14], as part of the Inner-City Asthma Study Group, conducted a randomized controlled trial of comprehensive ECPs in 937 children with atopic asthma. All were sensitized, as demonstrated by positive skin test, to at least one indoor allergen. A baseline home evaluation included both direct visual inspections and dust collection from the child’s bedroom. Targeted ECPs were then implemented based on skin testing results and the home evaluation. Interventions included the use of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) room air cleaner in the child’s bedroom if the child was exposed to ETS, sensitized and exposed to cat or dog allergens, or sensitized to mold. The intervention group reported significantly fewer symptoms of asthma during the intervention year and the follow-up year. The maximal number of days with symptoms was lower in the intervention group by 0.82 day per 2-week period in the first year (P?<?0.001) and 0.60 day per 2-week period in the second year (P?<?0.001). This effect is similar to that described in placebo-controlled studies of inhaled corticosteroids. The authors concluded that an “individualized, home-based, comprehensive environmental intervention decreases exposure to indoor allergens, and results in reduced asthma-associated morbidity.” This study and its outcomes represent the current thought that multiple ECPs, but not single interventions, are effective in modulating symptoms of allergic disease.

    A recent review of 3,727 adults with asthma by Roy and Wisnivesky [15], using data from the Four-State National Asthma Survey, examined the association between preventive asthma care and comprehensive ECPs. Comprehensive management was defined as the implementation of combinations of at least five of eight measures. Air filtration was found to be the fourth (27.4%) most commonly implemented strategy, preceded only by no smoking (80%), no pets (53.9%), and washing sheets in hot water (43.2%), and followed by pillow covers (23.7%), mattress covers (23.4%), no carpets (14.5%), and use of a dehumidifier (13.8%). A similar study in the pediatric population found the same rate of air filtration (27.4%) use in the households of asthmatic children [16].

    The role of air filtration in providing relief for individuals with allergic respiratory illness has been studied for more than 40 years [17, 18]. Prior reviews of air filtration have focused primarily on PRACs and the effect on patient symptom scores [19–21]. Reisman [19] stated that the studies should focus only on IgE-proven disease and HEPA PRACs. Wood [20] concluded that while HEPA PRACs may be an option for cat and dog allergy, there was no evidence they were effective for dust mite or mold allergy. Focusing only on allergies does not take into consideration the effects of PM and other indoor air pollutants. McDonald et al. [21] reported a meta-analysis of the only 10 randomized controlled trials on filtration published from 1973 through 1999. All 10 trials included asthmatic patients. The authors found a small statistically significant improvement in total symptoms and sleep disturbance associated with use of air cleaners, but no improvement in nasal symptoms, medication use, or peak expiratory flow (PEF) values.


    In a 2010 rostrum article, Sublett et al. [22??] provided a comprehensive review of air filtration. The authors described the characteristics of airborne particulates, including allergens, to be filtered, and pointed out that the impact of inhalable PM and the effect on disease is not always IgE mediated. Residential air-cleaning products and devices are categorized into two broad categories: WHF (ie, filters or cleaners that are installed on the central HVAC system) and free-standing PRACs. Current standards for testing to determine the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineer’s (ASHRAE) minimum efficiency rating value (MERV) for furnace filters and the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers rating system clean air delivery rate (CADR) for room air cleaners are outlined. They also described the results of 18 studies on air filtration from 1973 to 2009, including some studies previously reviewed. The authors concluded that for the “optimal choice of cleaning devices, initial cost and ease of regular maintenance should be considered. PRACs with HEPA filters, especially those that air breather filter the breathing zone during sleep, appear to be beneficial. For the millions of households with forced air HVAC systems, regular maintenance schedules and the use of high-efficiency disposable filters appear to be the best choices.” They, as had previous reviewers, recommended that more rigorous study methods be applied to future research on air filtration and that the studies be of sufficient duration to show effectiveness.

    Since the Wood [20] and McDonald et al. [21] reviews, there have been 14 studies (Table 1) published that are applicable to the role of air filtration as an environmental control measure for allergic respiratory diseases.

    Urbanization increased population density in cities and consequently leads to severe indoor air pollution. As a result of these trends, the issue of sustainable and healthy indoor environment has received increasing attention. Various air filtration techniques have been adopted to optimize indoor air quality. Air filtration technique can remove air pollutants and effectively alleviate the deterioration of indoor air quality. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the synergistic effect of different air purification technologies, air filtration theory, materials and standards. It evaluated different air filtration technologies by considering factors such as air quality improvement, filtering performance, energy and economic behaviour, thermal comfort and acoustic impact. Current research development of air filtration technologies along with their advantages, limitations and challenges are discussed. This paper aims to drive the future of air filtration technology research and development in achieving sustainable and healthy building ventilation.

    The most effective ways to improve your indoor air are to reduce or remove the sources of pollutants and to ventilate with clean outdoor air. In addition, research shows that filtration can be an effective supplement to source control and ventilation. Using a portable air cleaner and/or upgrading the cone air filter in your furnace or central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can help to improve indoor air quality. Portable air cleaners, also known as air purifiers or air sanitizers, are designed to filter the air in a single room or area. Central furnace or HVAC filters are designed to filter air throughout a home. Portable air cleaners and HVAC filters can reduce indoor air pollution; however, they cannot remove all pollutants from the air.

    The following publications provide information on portable air cleaners and on HVAC and furnace filters commonly used in homes.

    Heating ventilation and air conditioning system (HVAC) is very important for offices building and human health. The combining filter method was used to reduce the air pollution indoor such as that particulate matter and gases pollution that affected in health and productivity. Using license plate frame in industrial HVAC systems (factories and manufacturing process) does not enough to remove all the indoor pollution. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of combination filters for particle and gases removal efficiency. The combining method is by using two filters (particulate filter pre-filter and carbon filter) to reduce particle matter and gases respectively. The purpose of this study is to use minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV filter) rating 13 and activated carbon filter (ACF) to remove indoor air pollution and controlling the air change rate to enhance the air quality and energy saving. It was concluded that the combination filter showed good removal efficiency of particle up to 90.76% and 89.25% for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. The pressure drop across the filters was small compared with the high-efficiency filters. The filtration efficiency of combination filters after three months' was better than efficiency by the new MERV filter alone.

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  Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology
Posted by: gap0922ing - Today, 01:49 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology

    The pharmaceutical package market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future.

    Packaging is defined as the collection of different components which surround the pharmaceutical raw material from the time of production until its use. Packaging pharmaceutical products is a broad, encompassing, and multi-faceted task. Packaging is responsible for providing life-saving drugs, medical devices, medical treatments, and new products like medical nutritionals (nutraceuticals) in every imaginable dosage form to deliver every type of supplement, poultice, liquid, solid, powder, suspension, or drop to people the world over. It is transparent to the end user when done well and is open to criticism from all quarters when done poorly.[1,2]

    Distribution of products is now more global than ever. Mass customization of packaging to permit its use in multiple markets is a topic that needs exposition and discussion. Environmental issues, including sustainability, will always be a subjective dimension to any packaging design.

    Packaging is an emerging science, an emerging engineering discipline, and a success contributor to pharmaceutical industries.

    Packaging can reside, or report through research and development (R and D), engineering, operations, purchasing, marketing, or the general administrative department of a company. For the majority of products produced in pharmaceutical industries it is probably the single largest aggregate purchase made by a company of materials critical to the protection, distribution, and sale of the product.

    Containment - The containment of the product is the most fundamental function of packaging for medicinal products. The design of high-quality packaging must take into account both the needs of the product and of the manufacturing and distribution system. This requires the packaging: not to leak, nor allow diffusion and permeation of the product, to be strong enough to hold the contents when subjected to normal handling and not to be altered by the ingredients of the formulation in its final dosage form.[3]

    Protection - The packaging must protect the product against all adverse external influences that may affect its quality or potency, such as light, moisture, oxygen, biological contamination, mechanical damage and counterfeiting/adulteration.

    Presentation and information - Packaging is also an essential source of information on medicinal products. Such information is provided by labels and package inserts for patients.

    Identification - The printed packs or its ancillary printed components serves the functions of providing both identity and information.

    Convenience - The convenience is associated with product use or administration e.g., a unit dose eye drop which both eliminates the need for preservative and reduces risks associated with cross infection, by administering only a single dose.

    Primary packaging system is the material that first envelops the product and holds it i.e., those package components and subcomponents that actually come in contact with the product, or those that may have a direct effect on the product shelf life e.g., ampoules and vials, prefilled syringes, IV containers, etc.

    Secondary packaging system is outside the primary packaging and used to group primary packages together e.g., cartons, boxes, shipping containers, injection trays, etc.

    Tertiary packaging system is used for bulk handling and shipping e.g., barrel, container, edge protectors, etc.


    Traditionally, the majority of medicines (51%) have been taken orally by tablets or capsules, which are either packed in blister packs (very common in Europe and Asia) or fed into plastic pharmaceutical glass bottle (especially in the USA). Powders, pastilles and liquids also make up part of the oral veterinary medicine intake. However, other methods for taking medicines are now being more widely used. These include parentral or intravenous (29%), inhalation (17%), and transdermal (3%) methods.


    These changes have made a big impact on the packaging industry and there is an increasing need to provide tailored, individual packaging solutions, which guarantee the effectiveness of medicines.[4]

    The present review article details several key trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future packaging encompassing solid oral dosage forms and injectables.


    Aseptic blow-fill-seal (BFS) technology is the process by which plastic containers are formed, filled with sterile filtered product and sealed in an uninterrupted sequence of operations within the controlled sterile environment of a single machine.[5,6]

    The blow-fill-seal process is a robust, advanced aseptic processing technology, recognized by worldwide regulatory authorities for its inherent operational advantages over conventional aseptic production. Blow-fill-seal systems offer a unique combination of flexibility in packaging design, low operating cost and a high degree of sterility assurance. The machines require a minimum number of operating personnel and have a relatively small space requirement.


    A variety of polymers may be used in the process, low and high-density polyethylene and polypropylene being the most popular. The innate ability to form the container/closure during the actual aseptic packaging process allows for custom design of the container to meet the specific needs of the application. This flexibility not only improves container ease of use, but provides a means of interfacing with many of today's emerging drug delivery technologies, most notably in the field of respiratory therapy.


    Thermoplastic is continuously extruded in a tubular shape [Figure 1a]. When the tube reaches the correct length, the mold closes and the parison is cut [Figure 1b]. The bottom of the parison is pinched closed and the top is held in place with a set of holding jaws. The mold is then transferred to a position under the filling station.


    The nozzle assembly lowers into the parison until the nozzles form a seal with the neck of the mold [Figure 1c]. Container formation is completed by applying a vacuum on the mold-side of the container and blowing sterile filtered air into the interior of the container. The patented electronic fill system delivers a precise dosage of product into the container. The nozzles then retract into their original position.

    Container sealing


    Following completion of the filling process, the top of the container remains semi-molten. Separate seal molds close to form the top and hermetically seal the container [Figure 1d]. The mold opens and the container is then conveyed out of the machine [Figure 1e].


    The cycle is then repeated to produce another filled container. The filled containers are tested and checked to ensure that they meet the very strict specifications laid down for such products.


    The duration of the complete cycle is between 10-18 seconds, depending on the container design and the amount of liquid to be filled.


    BFS technology offers considerable advantages over conventional aseptic filling of preformed (plastic or other) containers, which are described as follows:

    BFS technology reduces personnel intervention making it a more robust method for the aseptic preparation of saccharin sodium.


    There is no need to purchase and stock a range of prefabricated containers and their closures. Bulk containers of plastic are required.


    Cleaning and sterilization of prefabricated containers and closures is not required. A clean, sterile container is made within the BFS machine as it is required for filling.


    The cost of material transport, storage and inventory control is reduced.

    Validation requirements are reduced.


    The technology allows the design of high-quality, custom-designed containers with tamper-evident closures in a variety of shapes and sizes.


    There is a large choice of neck and opening device shapes.


    A single compact BFS machine takes the place of several conventional machines, saving floor space. In addition, zones for transport to successive filling and closing procedures are not required because these operations all take place in the BFS machine itself.


    The operation of BFS machines is less labor intensive than conventional aseptic filling.


    The code numbers and variable data such as batch number and expiry date can be molded into the container itself rather than being added at a subsequent stage.

    The process lends itself to the production of single dose containers and therefore preservatives are not necessary as they are with multi-dose containers.

    Blow-fill-seal technology has gained much market focus in recent years due to the increased focus on biologics, proteins and other complex solutions. These important products often cannot withstand exposure to high temperatures for extended periods of time without degradation of their active components. Conventional terminal sterilization, therefore, is not an acceptable method to produce a ‘sterile’ product. Bulk sterilization, sterilization by gamma irradiation or filter sterilization followed by direct packaging utilizing the blow-fill-seal process are often used successfully for these types of products.

    Counterfeiting means producing products and packaging similar to the originals and selling the fake as authentic products. Counterfeit is a problem of product security, with reference to packaging is not a problem in isolation; it is the part along with:

    Duplication - i.e., copying labels, packaging, products, instructions and usage information,

    Substitution - placing inferior products in authentic or reused packaging,


    Tampering - by altering packages/labels and using spiked, pilfered, or stolen goods in place as real,

    Returns and Warranty frauds they are addressed as Brand Theft.

    The current numbers of anti-counterfeiting solutions are many and new options are introduced in the market with some variations. An attempt is made to explain the technologies for easy understanding on product packaging.

    1. Overt (visible) features


    Overt features are intended to enable end users to verify the authenticity of a pack. Such features will normally be prominently visible, and difficult or expensive to reproduce. They also require utmost security in supply, handling and disposal procedures to avoid unauthorized diversion. They are designed to be applied in such a way that they cannot be reused or removed without being defaced or causing damage to the pack for this reason an overt device might be incorporated within a tamper evident feature for added security.

    Tamper evident packaging systems

    Some packages are inherently tamper proof, like a tin can hermetically sealed, an aseptically packed multilayer carton or a vacuum or the retort pack. The tamper evident packaging systems are:

    a) Film wrappers

    A transparent film with a distinctive design is wrapped securely around a product or product container. The film must be cut or torn to open the container and remove the product. Substrates options include ultra destructible films, voidable films that provides image when removed. e.g., Solvent sensitive papers.


    b) Shrink seals and bands

    Bands or wrappers with a distinctive design are shrunk by heat or drying to seal the cap and container union. The seal must be cut or torn to remove the product.


    c) Breakable caps

    Such caps break when an attempt is made to open it. These caps provide external tamper evidence and can also be combined with the internal seals thereby providing double security.

    d) Sealed tubes

    The mouth of the tube is sealed, and the seal must be punctured to obtain the product.

    2. Covert (hidden) features

    The purpose of a covert feature is to enable the brand owner to identify counterfeited product. The general public will not be aware of its presence nor have the means to verify it. A covert feature should not be easy to detect or copy without specialist knowledge, and their details must be controlled on a “need to know” basis. If compromised or publicized, most covert features will lose some if not all of their security value [Figure 2].

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is hardly a new concept. For some, RFID is already a mainstream technology-it is used every day to pay tolls, secure building access, catch shop lifters etc., It allows the identification of objects through a wireless communications in a fixed frequency band. Three essential components in any RFID system are: the tag, the reader and the software. The tag is an integrated circuit containing a unique tracking identifier, called an electronic product code (EPC), which is transmitted via E.M. waves in the radio spectrum. The reader captures the transmitted signal and provides the network connectivity between tag data and the system software. The software can be tailor made for the purpose of anti-counterfeiting. For their track and trace usage, RFID tags are used [Figure 3].

    When RFID tag is within the interrogation zone of the reader (i.e., interrogator) equipment; sufficient power is extracted from the interrogator to power up the tag or circuit, or a special reflective material. It then responds by transmitting data back to the interrogator.

    b) Active tag

    Such tags incorporate a battery to increase range for collating data, tag to tag communication, etc., But these are much more expensive.


    c) Semi-active tag

    In these tags batteries are used to back up the memory and data, but not to boost the range. With some active RFID tags, the batteries are only used when interrogated or when sending a homing pulse at fixed intervals to reduce cost and size.


    4. Packaging designs: Materials/Substrates and other design options


    a) Substrates

    There are variety of substrates used in the design of packages with intent to provide counterfeit and tamper evident features starting from litho paper, polystyrenes, destructive vinyl's, acetate films synthetic paper and coatings etc., There are many ways of incorporating covert markers within a substrate, such as visible or UV fluorescing fibers, or chemical reagents in carton board or paper. Watermarks can be embedded in leaflet paper, or metallic threads interwoven in the base material, possibly including an overt optically variable devices (OVD) feature. These require a dedicated supply source and large volume production, which, if affordable, results in a very effective option. Micro-encapsulated distinctive odors can be applied as an additive to an ink or coating to provide a novel covert or semi-overt feature, as well as sound chips creates special opportunities in the design.


    b) Packaging designs

    Packaging designs like sealed cartons, aerosol containers have inherent strength against counterfeiting


    c) Sealing systems

    Special caps such as the outer tamper evident system or the foil seal as an internal tamper evident feature are commonly used for pharmaceutical products. Sealing options are lever-lidded tins, secure packaging tapes, lined cartons and tear tapes/bands.


    5. Security labels


    Tamper evident and security labels play an important role in providing some relief to the consumers against fakes. In self adhesive labels the substrate mostly performs as a complimentary interaction of the substrate and the pressure sensitive adhesive. While passive security labels have been extensively used, today one can find a greater application of functional labels such as printing plus anti-theft. Some label options are:


    a) Paper labels with security cuts

    The substrate used for these labels is ordinary coated/uncoated paper. The security features are built in by the label printer at the converting stage. With the help of a special cutting die, the face material is given cuts at various angles so that by any ways one tries to remove these labels the paper will tear off. A general purpose permanent adhesive works fine with such labels. Care is taken to ensure that the adhesive will adhere well and firmly to the surface on which the label has to be applied.


    b) Destructible labels

    Needs a special substrate designed for the purpose. Most of the high-end applications use a specially made cellulose acetate film. The film is very intricately designed so that it has adequate strength to undergo conversion into label stocks in roll form. It is available both in clear and opaque formats and further converted into labels using aggressive pressure sensitive adhesives. The labels can be automatically dispensed on automatic label dispensers and when attempted to be removed, break-up into very small fragmented pieces. The cost effective vinyl have replaced acetate film. A combination of various synthetic polymers can be used to impart low inherent strength to the substrate.


    c) Void labels and tapes

    The most important of the tamper evident security labels and have text built into them. When as a self adhesive label they are removed, they exhibit the word VOID both in the removed film and the adhesive layer left behind. These substrates gain importance as there can be customization built into the labels produced with it. One can use polyester or biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) as face materials. Variety of colors, even metallization is possible. The text VOID could be replaced by the customers brand, emblem or a message, which would normally be invisible till the label is opened. Due to the versatility of things that can be done with the product, these label substrates have found widespread usage worldwide. The substrates can even be designed to work as tapes for the final outer corrugated cartons to prevent pilferage.


    d) Self destructing paper label

    The labels are very similar to destructible labels as mentioned earlier. In this case, the substrate used is of very weak strength paper of low grammage. The paper is also heavily loaded with fillers creating a weak and brittle paper. Labels made from such papers fragment into pieces when attempted to be removed. However, converting it is a very tricky issue when using these substrates due to the lack of strength. The papers are very difficult to source since most of the paper mills are trying to develop papers with very high strength.


    e) Holographic labels

    The labels form a very large and important part of the security label market and are an ideal choice for product authentication. The holographic foil that is an optically variable device is largely made using a polyester film base. The optical interaction of the holographic image and the human eye makes it ideal for brand promotion and security. These products reveal the holographic image when tilted in light. The image so revealed can be customized to the need of the brand owners to make the maximum impact. The hologram production involves development of complex origination process and a lot of innovation to make it difficult for counterfeiters to duplicate. Many holograms are designed such that besides offering brand authentication they also have tamper evident properties. The top polyester layer has a special coating that if the hologram is attempted to be removed, the top layer peels off leaving the hologram behind on the product [Figure 4].

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  ULTIMATE GUIDE: BEST SOFT CLOSE DRAWER SLIDES
Posted by: gap0922ing - Today, 01:48 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

ULTIMATE GUIDE: BEST SOFT CLOSE DRAWER SLIDES

    The best soft close drawer slides will open easily, close smoothly and be certified for durability. But unfortunately finding a brand name slide that works properly isn’t easy. And, since soft close slides require precision installation, there are a few tools you MUST purchase for proper installation. In this article learn what the best drawer slides are for your projects – and what you need to install them.

    First, after building and installing over a thousand drawers, I know drawer slides must be durable and reliable.

    First up is understanding what a soft close drawer slide is – and isn’t.

    So, as you’d expect, a soft close drawer slide does two things. First, it prevents drawers from slamming through use of a damper that catches the drawer and slows the closing force. Then second, using (preferably) two large springs the soft close mechanism gently pulls the drawer closed.

    Is it the same as self closing? No.&nbsp;

    But will a quality soft close drawer slide keep most drawers closed? Yes.&nbsp;

    BEST DRAWER SLIDES FOR CABINETS AND FURNITURE

    As with a lot of hardware, there just isn’t a great variety of choices.

    While some top brands like Accuride dominate in self closing under mount slides(that are not soft closing!), they just didn’t perform as well as others.

    So, based on my reviews and use, here are the top three choices for your next project.

    There’s a reason most cabinets offer undermounts as upgrades: they simply perform better.

    Because an undermount drawer slide places the weight of the drawer on horizontal rollers (versus steel ball bearings) the drawer action is SMOOTHER.&nbsp;

    For example, the Blum 563H won’t require the hard pull to open like you’d find in a low quality side mount soft close slide. And, since they aren’t metal-on-metal, you’ll find they are quieter as well.

    So what’s the catch? You’ll need to make a few custom measurements as these slides don’t use a standard 1/2″ side clearance. Instead, you’ll have a slightly wider drawer and require an extra 1/4″ or so clearance under the drawer to fit the slide.

    I was surprised with this drawer slide.

    First, they come individually or in packs of 2, 6 and 10 at half the price of most other drawer slides.&nbsp;

    And, while they what I consider a “generic” slide as they aren’t from one of the established manufacturers, their construction was TOP NOTCH when stacked up against the other slides.

    And, in a brand test, I’ve put these ahead of the well known Accuride as they simply performed better and were surprisingly quieter when opened and closed. As you know, or don’t, that will matter when you first open and close the door as a “clicking and clacking” sound is one of the hallmarks of poor performing ball bearing slides (soft close or standard).&nbsp;

    Lastly, with their great bundled price, I’ve also installed these in a recent garage workshop makeover. And after loading one drawer (~15″ x 22″) to capacity with heavy screw boxes it has performed fantastic. I’ve even attempted to slam the drawer and it’s damper has worked each time.&nbsp;

    And the Accuride C-3832 drawer slide is a strong competitor.

    However, due to price and noise it falls to #4 on the list as it’s performance doesn’t stand out from the competitors to justify it’s hefty price tag.


    Curiously, this slide had the #1 issue with side mount ball bearing slides: it opened loud. While most high quality slides have extra “bumpers” to ensure 3 tracks don’t do this my test showed a louder than average click.

    However, if you’re an Accuride fan, and want to purchase slides from an industry name, then these slides are something to consider.

    For a brand name drawer slide with an industry reputation the Knape & Vogt are an option to the Vadania drawer slides but fall short on closing force. Due to a thinner design (7/16″), single spring design, shorter rail, and among the lowest closing force of all slides I don’t recommend this slide.

    &nbsp;

    Unfortunately, this slide attempted a different soft closing mechanism with a single spring and it just didn’t compare head-to-head to the other slides. For that reason, when searching for the best soft close drawer slides I’d pass on the 8400P.

    &nbsp;

    I am a fan, however, of the Knape and Vogt TruTrac slides for standard duty ball bearing without soft close.

    I was expecting great things from these slides but was disappointed. Due to a sloppy rail when opening and the loudest closing noise these slides just didn’t measure up to the others on this list.

    The Promark rear mounting brackets, however, were excellent and worked on all the slides I tested. And I particularly liked the extra wide rear width for easy screw hole access.

    I know you want to get to the drawer slides.

    But, before we do I want to share a few tips on what else to buy.&nbsp;

    Or, no matter how good the slide is won’t operate correctly, it might fail later, or you may possibly break it during installation:

    Drawer slide jigs are a must to properly align your drawers during installation. Most cost less than 1-2 pairs of slides and the Kreg KHI-SLIDE is most popular.

    Rear mount brackets are a must for face frame applications as they make installation faster and improve drawer performance with infinite adjustment. I’ve used the ProMark and Lontan and prefer the ProMark as it has a larger rear screw plate.


    Drawer screws sent by most manufacturers are inadequate. So, I use Rok #8 truss head screws in both drawer European slides and soft close cabinet hinges as they have a superior hold.&nbsp;

    So, add these 3 to your shopping list and you’ll experience a MUCH SMOOTHER installation.

    Don’t want hardware on the front of your drawers?&nbsp;

    Well, you’re in luck if you have a frameless design to your cabinets. By adding push to close to an undermount soft close drawer slide you can gently push the drawer front and the drawer will glide partly open.

    While these aren’t cheap, you can factor in the savings of not having to purchase additional hardware (and install them).

    Who makes these? A few options:

    King under mount push to open slides that have this feature built-in

    Blum TIP-ON is an accessory to their TANDEM slides that can be added to any compatible drawer to upgrade to push to open.

    Heavy Duty Undermount Soft Close Drawer Slides

    While heavy duty drawer slides, for me, start around 150 pounds there are a few options for soft close drawer slides at 125 pounds:

    Blum heavy duty under mount with 125 pound capacity

    SOFT CLOSE DRAWER SLIDE RATINGS

    We’ll go through each drawer slide in detail, but after my testing I ranked the slides as follows. A few aren’t easy to find, so I’ve included links for buying now – and most are most economical in a 6 or 10-pack (just divide by quantity to get per unit).


    Lastly, don’t forget rear mounting brackets, screws and a drawer slide jig when installing these soft close drawer slides

    Drawer slides can be as easy or as hard as you allow them, and it all depends on what type of slide you choose. In this guide we are going to cover the many different types of Drawer slides on the market, the many different ways a slide can be fitted into a cabinet, and then some help tips for you to decide which is the ideal type you need for your application.&nbsp; &nbsp;This is allot to cover especially when you consider that a drawer slide should be a very simple device to buy and install, but the reality is there are allot of external factors you must consider.&nbsp;

    Different types of Drawer Slide

    Drawer slides, or as they are sometimes called a drawer rollers, are a type of mechanism that allows smooth linear motion in one axis. They are most commonly used in pairs and found in a huge range of applications, mostly kitchen cabinets. Drawer slides generally work by having one component to slide over a slightly larger or smaller component of equal shape with roller bearings between them to create the smooth rolling function, which allows the entire mechanism to extend or retract. Drawer slides are not motorized but can be if&nbsp; a linear actuator is attached to provide the hands free motion for you. Generally, you will use drawer slides on their own and will likely encounter only two main types: Ball-Bearing Slides & Roller Slides.

    Roller slides consists of two components, the sliding main member strut and the fixed cabinet drawer strut. These types of slides are not fixed together until after you have attached them to both the drawer and the fixed cabinet.&nbsp; Only then can you slide the drawer into position and they then slide in and out freely.&nbsp;

    Each strut having one wheel attached at each end is what allows the slides to run freely but it has its limitations.&nbsp; Having only onw wheel to carry the load is a huge disadvantage. This means that the load carried by the entire drawer and its contents is all focused onto the one wheel at either side of the cabinet drawer. This point load can be large for cabinets that need to carry more load and will eventually result in failure.&nbsp; &nbsp;Another thing to note is that the plastic wheels are not mounted onto bearings, they are simply plastic wheels on a metal axel that will eventually cause noise or wear problems at some point during its lifetime. One main advantage of these is that they are very cheap to purchase from any hardware store.

    17mm ball bearing slides as you can see from the image above are completely different to Roller slides. These make use of ball bearings encased in a bearing cage so they don't fall out, and some models offer a telescopic motion. By telescopic we mean that the Rails have 3 or more members that once combined together are able to extend the same distance or more than their total closed length. This great use of space is what gives them such a great appeal because the drawers are then able to slide out 100% of the drawers depth in a cabinet, where-as using a roller slide you can typically only achieve around 75% opening.&nbsp;


    These types of slide rails offer extreme rigidity of the draw when fully opened or closed and allows them to carry a significant amount of weight. Plus the are easy to install as they have many hole patterns pre drilled along the length of each member for attaching them to both the fixed cabinet and the cabinet drawer. To open the the slides so that they can be installed simply press the lever down to unlock the full extended opening. Please view the video further down this article to see how to do that. Please note however not all Drawer slides come with the lever feature to take apart the drawer slides, all FIRGELLI drawer slides do have this feature however.&nbsp;


    Ball-bearing drawer slides provide a huge durability life span and have much larger load rating compared to roller slides. Within our range of Ball Bearing slides we do even offer a very heavy duty type. Click here to view them.&nbsp; Heavy duty versions of ball-bearing slides&nbsp;

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  How to Choose A Kitchen Faucet
Posted by: gap0922ing - Today, 01:46 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

How to Choose A Kitchen Faucet

    The sink and faucet area is one of the most-used in any kitchen, and are often treated as a design focal point for the room. Upgrading your kitchen faucet is an easy and economical way to give your space a quick design refresh, or complement a whole kitchen transformation. A new faucet changes the look of the whole space. Be smart about the choice so that you find the best fit for your home and know what to look for before you buy.

    It’s no surprise that the kitchen faucet is one of the most well used items in the room, but what might be news is how many improvements have been made to this simple fixture. There are many more options than just the selection of comfortable handles for the hot and cold water lines. It’s a good idea to explore the different styles, finishes, and features that are available when selecting a new faucet. The right design will look great for years, and add to the value of your home - all while meeting the demands of your busy kitchen. Take a broader view of what the options are and bring home the best fit.

    Before you shop, it’s helpful to have an idea of what you want the end result to look like. Take stock of the styles and colors you want to emphasize and accent in your kitchen, as well as the size of your sink and countertop to compare as you consider a new faucet. The most important part about choosing a new faucet is that you be happy with the new addition to your kitchen after the installation, so always keep the final product in mind as you browse.

    Grab the measuring tape, because it’s time to get some numbers. It’s usually easier to find a faucet that works in the space allowed than it would be to rebuild the kitchen to accommodate a faucet. As with all home improvement projects, picking a new faucet requires some educated placement decisions, a general idea of what you want the finished sink area to look like, and the scope of the tasks it will be used for.

    This means you should know how wide and deep the basin is, especially in comparison to the size of plates, pots, and pans you plan to wash in the sink. Any faucet you buy will need to have a high enough spout for these chores and others, as well as a low enough placement to avoid excess splashing that will make a mess outside of the sink.

    Similarly, if you are looking at a deck-mounted faucet, know how much room is available behind the sink to install the faucet. A wall-mounted faucet needs to be placed with the spout extending over the center of the sink, which requires taking into account the space between the interior edge of the sink and the wall. For that, you will compare the sink measurements to the size of the faucets as you narrow down the selection.

    Measure the countertop behind the sink, and the diameter of the pre-drilled holes and the distance between their centers. You will need to know the width of the sink as well as the depth between the wall and sink edge. This is important for both the installation and the regular use of your faucet, as you’ll need to be sure there is room between the wall and faucet to fully articulate the faucet handles or levers.

    As you search for a new kitchen faucet, you’ll see a number of other options to choose from that influence the overall style and operation of the faucet in your home. It’s a good idea to understand the basic configurations before you choose, to be aware of the product information and ensure you get exactly the features you want.

    In a counter- or deck-mounted installation, drinking faucets can be mounted on the counter or sink edge. Deck mounted is the more common style, and it helps draw attention to the sink as a design element in your kitchen. Here you’ll find the largest variety of faucets, ranging from single-hole mounts to up to three-hole mounts, in all sizes and finishes.

    Wall mounted kitchen faucets are often found in more commercial or industrial locations, with a unique and modern style. Home kitchens, laundry rooms, garages, and greenhouses often rely on wall-mounted faucets for their space-saving design. In smaller kitchens with limited counter space, wall mounted faucets free up the counter and allow different design options for the sink, and unique plumbing profile lines.

    Valves regulate water flow and temperature from the faucets. They’re the basic control inside the faucet body that makes the water pour from the spout and aerator, turning on or off at your command with the turn of a handle. The different valve types work differently, which changes the capabilities of the design, and it also means that they require different kinds of maintenance over the long term. The valve type often describes the basic operation of the faucet, naming the moving parts that stop the water from leaking. There are many types, but there are four that are more common to come across.

    Ball valve - A ball valve is recognized by the single handle near the base that can control the water flow and the water temperature by pivoting and rotating to blend the water as needed.

    Disk valve - A ceramic disk valve faucet handle can move up and down to control the flow of the water, and side to side to control the amount of hot or cold in the mix. It gets the name from the two flat disks inside the faucet mechanisms that create the seal to control the water flow; moving the handle will separate the disks and allow the water through to the spigot. The disk valve can be replaced without replacing the entire faucet.

    Cartridge valve - Cartridge valves are hollow valves that are often found in faucets with blade handles because they only need turned to as much as a 90-degree angle to work. The cartridge rotates to block the water line to the spout. For a single handle faucet, the cartridge moving up and down will allow the water flow, and turning the handle left to right will control the temperature. When there are separate handles, such as in a three or four hole sink set up, two individual handles can control the hot and cold water lines separately to mix in the faucet. Cartridges can be replaced without needing to replace the entire faucet.

    Compression valve - A compression valve is usually found in older fixture styles. They look like the traditional faucet, with the 360 degree, turn-screw, knob handles. Hot and cold water are managed by separate handles, and in more vintage set ups, they can be routed to different taps as well. Turning the handles will tighten or loosen an internal washer, and that compression closes the water line. Because of how they are built, a busted compression valve will often require replacing the whole faucet rather than a few internal pieces.&nbsp;&nbsp;

    If your sink is a drop-in, undermount, or farmhouse design, it is likely to have a set of holes drilled or pre-punched into the deck for the faucet and other plumbing fixtures. The faucet itself can take up as many as 3 holes, depending on the type of faucet you choose, and other fixtures like soap dispensers can be installed for your convenience, too. Whether you will choose one hole, two, or even four holes along the sink deck depends on the kind of look or style that you want as much as the kind of faucet you choose.

    Single-hole faucet with a pull-down sprayer - These can include the high, gooseneck faucets with the tall, drastic arch leading to the spout, as well as the more industrial-style pre-rinse faucet with the durable springs and lever handle along the spray-hose for added reach and control. Others mount the handle on the faucet body, while touchless models require no handle at all; just wave at the side-mounted sensor, or for tomorrow’s kitchens, give a voice command to start up the water.

    Single-hole faucet with a side-spray - While it may be a single hole faucet, the smaller side spray will occupy a second hole pre-drilled in the sink deck or countertop. This is a simple, clean look that doesn’t take up too much extra room on the deck and offers versatility and utility. Two-hole escutcheon plates are available to accent the design, or to cover up a third hole in the sink that might not be needed.

    Two-handle faucet (3-hole layout) - To emphasize the artistic design of a faucet, some fixtures will have hot and cold water as separate handles, one on each side of the center faucet. It visually helps take up a little extra space along the sink edge and draws attention as a design focal point. They are also very easy to use while doing the usual sink-based chores, with one-handed hot or cold water at the turn of a handle. An escutcheon plate cover can also be utilized cover one of three holes, to allow a faucet with a single, separate control handle.

    Bridge faucet with side spray (4-hole layout) - A bridge faucet will have two temperature handles alongside a center water flow pipe. The hot and cold water will travel up their dedicated handles and then mix in the connection between them on the way to the spout. A bridge faucet can take up three holes or two, depending on the style you choose, and will usually require a separate side spray as the bridge connection prevents the extending hose feature.

    There isn’t much to be done with a stainless sink faucet; the entire purpose of it is as a water source, and the water is either on or off, right? Not exactly. The shape of the faucet changes from one design to another, and companies like Moen, Delta, Brizo, and Kohler are constantly looking to improve how the kitchen faucet interacts in the home. It started with the basics, like the side spray and the pull-down faucet. Now, technology-savvy companies have even wondered: why should you have to dirty up the finish with soapy fingerprints when waving a plate under the faucet could turn the water on? And their ideas and solutions improve year after year, all to make the kitchen life a little easier with a wide variety of standard features to choose from.

    Side sprayer - A classic staple at the kitchen sink was the side sprayer. The smaller faucet is located at the end of an extendable hose, offering directed water pressure exactly where it is needed, whether cleaning the pots and pans, scrubbing the sink, or watering a potted plant.

    Pull-out faucet - The pullout faucet offers all the convenience of the side sprayer without taking up any extra space on the sink edge. The hose extends down toward the sink or at an angle just above it, which adds a slight advantage in reach.

    Electronic faucet features - A growing trend in today’s homes is the addition of smart technology, computerized mechanics that help make the everyday chores a little easier. The kitchen sink can now be turned on and off with the wave of a hand thanks to motion sensor technology installed in the faucet body. Other designs include the ability to control the sink by talking to it, taking hands-free activation a step further with voice-activation. Electronic features are safe and convenient, but they may require professional installation. Sinks with electronic features will need to be installed with access to a reliable power supply, so keep their placement in mind during your kitchen remodel plans.

    Water filtering - Some kitchen faucets are available with built-in filtration options that can purify your tap water to make it drinkable, right from the faucet. These high-capacity faucets are capable of delivering as much as 1GPM of water, filtering out common problem chemicals like chlorine, lead, mercury, and even pesticides and pharmaceuticals.

    Drinking water dispensers - Whether filtered and cold, or ready for cocoa or tea, dedicated drinking water dispensers can be installed at the sink. They are sized to fit in the same holes that a regular kitchen faucet would use, but they are designed to pour water at a slower rate, more appropriate for filling drinking cups. They are usually found as part of a filter kit, and many include hot water dispensers that store and maintain water at a drinkable temperature just right for tea.

    Finally, one of the most important details when selecting a brushed stainless kitchen faucet is choosing the perfect finish. The finish determines the color and durability of the faucet for years to come. From stainless steel, to copper, to modern black, the finish can be found in a variety of metals and colors to coordinate with the accenting colors of your kitchen hardware and appliances. Newer finishes are designed specifically to resist the oils of fingerprints and smudges, making it easier to keep clean and helping to keep your family healthy. As it turns out, it’s even okay to mix metals in your home decor, so go with the style that you like.

    Chrome is currently one of the most popular finishes because of its versatility. It is durable, easy to find, and easy to match with accessories and other fixtures.

    A brushed nickel finish is very durable, keeping its finish longer and resisting wear and tear.

    Copper finishes provide a bold and rich feel to your space. With the ability to ‘heal itself’, the more it gets used, the better it looks.

    If you’re looking for a good balance of durability and style, you can’t go wrong with stainless steel.

    At the end of the day, make sure you pick a faucet that works with your style. While some finishes tend to be more durable than others, on the whole, most finishes will stand the test of every-day wear and tear. So really focus on style here, and find something that matches your space.

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  How Padlocks Work
Posted by: gap0922ing - Today, 01:45 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

How Padlocks Work

    Learn about the standard iron padlock to understand the main parts, how they work and also how to bypass the mechanical security features to pick the lock.

    With thanks to Squarespace for sponsoring this article. Go to Squarespace.com for a free trial and when you’re ready to launch, go to http://squarespace.com/engineeringmin… and add code “ENGINEERINGMINDSET” at checkout to save 10% off your first purchase of a website or domain.

    Padlocks come in many shapes colours and sizes. They have been around for hundreds of years, ranging in complexity of design by different people and civilisations depending on the technology and manufacturing processes they had available. With the industrial revolution came the mass-produced padlock which eventually settled on a pin tumbler design. Called so because inside are some pins and a barrel which rotates or tumbles over.

    These are strong mechanical locks which are easy to mass produce and we find them used for everything from keeping our bikes where we left them to symbolising the everlasting love between two people on a bridge, and then throwing the key away to ensure it can’t be undone. But these types of locks, especially the cheap ones, can be unlocked without a key if you know the correct method and once we understand how the lock works we’ll learn how to pick the lock.

    When we look at a padlock the most noticeable feature is the U-shaped shackle at the top. In the unlocked position, one end of the shackle pops out of the main body allowing this component to rotate freely. On the inside surface of the shackle we will find two notches. These form part of the lock mechanism and we’ll see that part shortly.

    To lock the brass padlock we simply align the end of the shackle with the hole in the lock body and push these together. You’ll feel the internal locking mechanism engage and click into place, the shackle will now be unable to leave the body of the lock. To unlock the padlock we need to insert the correct key into the key hole at the bottom of the lock body, and rotate the key until it releases the shackle.

    When the key is turned, the plug will rotate. The plug has a number of holes in the top, within each hole there is a small metal cylinder known as a key pin. Each key pin is a different height, and this will correspond to the profile of the key.

    When a key is inserted into the lock, the key pins will follow the profile of the key and move up and down until the key is fully inserted. Once fully inserted, if the correct key has been used, then the top of each key pin will align with the shear line. The driver pins will have been pushed up and will now fully sit within the housing while the key pins sits fully within the plug. This means the plug is now able to rotate. If the wrong key is inserted then the pins will not align and the plug will be unable to rotate.

    The key is inserted into the plug. The different sized key pins rest inside a number of holes inside the plug and will move up and down to follow the profile of the key. If the correct key is inserted then the top of the key pins will align with the top of the plug. This pushes the driver pins out of the plug holes and into their respective chamber. The springs ensure the driver pins will be forced into the holes if the wrong key, or if no key, is inserted.

    With all the pins cleared, the key can rotate the plug. At the end of the plug is a cam which also rotates with the plug. This connects with the arms of the two latches. The latches are pushed outwards by a spring, this pushes the arm against the cam but also pushes the latch into a notch on the shackle preventing the lock from opening without the key. With the correct key inserted the plug is free to rotate, this rotates the cam which pulls the latches inwards against the spring, releasing the shackle. A spring within the shackle chamber pushes the arm outward releasing the lock.

    Nowadays, there are many gifts you can give your loved ones. Often, you wonder what to give that special someone to let them feel that you love them forever. Perhaps a love padlock engraved with a message would work.

    Engraved padlocks are the new trend and are available for you online on Amazon, or you can visit your local gift shop. Love locks are excellent symbols of commitment to a lover, a friend, family, e.t.c. They are a perfect way to express to someone what they mean to you.

    Traditionally, people hang the padlocks on bridges, but you may have other creative ideas. However, some lovelocks do not come with keys. They symbolize locking your love forever. Here are a few engraved padlocks you can consider.

    Let us begin,

    40mm Personalized Engraved Love Lock

    The solid brass 40mm engraved disc padlock is a beautiful design with a permanent message engraved in bold letters. You can see the writings under most lighting conditions.

    It comes with an attractive, black gift box, whose price is overall. It is easily customizable according to your tastes and preference. The gift box also has engravings of your liking, and the letters come with a unique design. You can also look for ones on Amazon with the message you want or place an order with the exact specifications you need. You can also visit your nearby gift shop and select or order one from the manufacturer.

    The engraved love lock has a shiny brass color on the top area and a golden color on the bold writings. It comes with a pair of functional keys which resemble the tri-circle padlock design. The 40mm engraved love lock is an ideal gift for father’s day, mother’s day, birthday parties, wedding anniversaries, valentines, e.t.c.

    Long Shackle lovelock Double Shaped Heart

    It comes in many exciting colors such as pink, red, blue, purple, e.t.c. The long shackle would be a lovely present for someone who loves colorful items. You can also order the color you like with the message of your liking engraved on it. There is a gift box available which you can also personalize with a message.

    The long shackle engraved padlock does not have a key, so on one end, it has a small colored rubber or plastic seal for decoration. The large latch is ideal for hanging on a bridge with your loved ones.

    It is an excellent gift for colorful occasions such as weddings, Valentine’s day, birthdays, e.t.c. It has a heart-shaped design that captures the essence of love once you set your eyes on it. You can order it online on Amazon or any gift shop outlet available to you.

    Bird pink 4 Digit Combination Love Lock

    It has a unique and stunning combination of colors. It can get personalized with paintings of your choice to make it more customizable. The material of the love lock is alloy steel and stainless steel that makes it high security. The four-digit combination makes up for the keys, for you can unlock it automatically using the password you set.

    It is ideal for locking gym lockers, luggage, sheds, gates, e.t.c. You can personalize it by engraving it with a message to a friend, family, or spouse. You can make a few clicks online and order it from Amazon or visit your nearby gift shop to get a customizable one.

    Engraved love lock Necklace

    Engraved Padlocks come in a variety of designs ranging from chokers to necklaces and chains. The pendant can be heart-shaped, square, rectangle, or any personalized shape you want. Gifting a love lock necklace engraved with a message is a thoughtful idea. You can also hang it on bridges if you prefer memorable romantic moments.

    An engraved golden heart necklace might be just the thing your spouse needs if he/she likes fancy necklaces. You can purchase them on Amazon or your local jewelry or gift shop.

    Heart Engraved PadLock and Key Set

    These charming engraved heart lock engraved laminated padlock will melt your heart once you set your eyes on them. They have the most romantic message engraved on them. You can easily customize them with the type of message you want. In most cases, the message will either be just what you wanted to convey or will be beyond your expectations. They also come in the most endearing colors, light pink, shiny grey, silver, gold, e.t.c.

    The product is a perfect wedding and couple gift since it comes with a wedding card box. These pretty love locks are available on Amazon, or you can check them out at your nearby gift shop.

    Iron Antique Vintage Engraved Love Lock

    The Iron Antique Vintage Engraved padlock is also called the “love rock”. It’s common among couples, sweethearts, love birds who usually lock it on a bridge, tree, gate, and other placements to symbolize their love.

    The interest in love padlocks has spiked since the turn of the century as more people look for different ways to express their love to each other. The vintage love lock features a customized engravement on individual pieces. Some versions have rustic textures to highlight how long both individuals have been together.

    You can buy the Iron Antique Vintage Engraved Padlock as a gift to your special friend through online platforms such as Etsy. The engraving gives a personal touch to the item added to the lock includes two skeleton keys (one for each partner).

    Silver-Tone Heart- Shaped Love Lock

    The silver Tone Heart Shaped love lock gestures a love-shaped design coupled with a personalized engraving on its surface. You can opt for a name, quote, verse, etc. The product also comes with a key for unlocking.

    The engraved weatherproof padlock comes in a dominant silver-white color, sleek design measuring between 1.75” by 1.40” by 4.0” in height. You can also purchase the product enclosed in a gift box and a bow ribbon for a more personalized touch. The Silver Tone Heart Shaped love lock is suited for gifts, birthday presents, and on special occasions.

    Vintage Copper Engraved Padlocks

    Copper love locks have existed for a long time. These love locks come off as extremely durable, safe, and highly customizable. You can purchase the products from online stores such as Amazon and eBay or at antique stores. It becomes even more meaningful when you gift it to your spouse, loved one, or friend.

    Vintage copper gives off a rustic look that seems to transcend the realms of time. It has an old-school feeling and might feature other unique properties such as the shape of the keys and the overall aesthetics of the engraved padlock.

    Bottom Line:

    Engraved padlocks are unique locks in every aspect. In contrast to standard versions, they provide a special message and give off a personalized feel to the product.

    Engraved padlocks are perfect gifts for occasions such as graduations, valentine’s day, birthdays, engagements, wedding ceremonies, marriage anniversaries, etc. I am sure you will agree with me that before adopting extravagant decisions, such as locking up stuff with them, a gift like an engraved padlock from someone would be something you would treasure.

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  Intelligent Mining Technology for an Underground Metal Mine Based on Unmanned Equipme
Posted by: gap0922ing - Today, 01:43 AM - Forum: My Forum - No Replies

Intelligent Mining Technology for an Underground Metal Mine Based on Unmanned Equipment

    This article presents facts and figures on mining equipment safety and reviews various important aspects of mining equipment safety including quarry accidents, electrical accidents, equipment fires, maintenance-related mining accidents, causes of mining equipment accidents and major ignition sources for mining equipment fires. A number of methods considered useful for performing mining equipment safety analysis are also presented. Useful strategies to reduce mining equipment fires and injuries, guidelines to improve electrical safety in the mining industry, and human-factor-related tips for safer mining equipment are discussed.


    This article analyzes the current research status and development trend of intelligent technologies for underground metal mines in China, where such technologies are under development for use to develop mineral resources in a safe, efficient, and environmentally friendly manner. We analyze and summarize the research status of underground metal mining technology at home and abroad, including some specific examples of equipment, technology, and applications. We introduce the latest equipment and technologies with independent intellectual property rights for unmanned mining, including intelligent and unmanned control technologies for rock-drilling jumbos, down-the-hole (DTH) drills, underground scrapers, underground mining trucks, and underground charging vehicles. Three basic platforms are used for intelligent and unmanned mining: the positioning and navigation platform, information-acquisition and communication platform, and scheduling and control platform. Unmanned equipment was tested in the Fankou Lead-Zinc Mine in China, and industrial tests on the basic platforms of intelligent and unmanned mining were carried out in the mine. The experiment focused on the intelligent scraper, which can achieve autonomous intelligent driving by relying on a wireless communication system, location and navigation system, and data-acquisition system. These industrial experiments indicate that the technology is feasible. The results show that unmanned mining can promote mining technology in China to an intelligent level and can enhance the core competitive ability of China’s mining industry.

    With the world’s rapid economic development, the demand for mineral resources is increasing. It has been forecast that the depth of more than 33% of the metal mines in China will reach or exceed 1000?m within the next decade. Deep underground mining will become the trend of metal mining in China [1]. To overcome the disadvantages of traditional mining methods, such as excessive resource consumption, poor operating environments, low production efficiency, high safety risks, high production costs, and severe pollution, it is essential to develop an intelligent mining technology for underground metal mines that provides complete safety, environmental protection, and efficiency [2], [3]. Some developed countries have done a great deal of work in the field of intelligent mining for underground metal mines over many years, and thus have considerable experience in this field. At the beginning of the 21st century, Canada, Finland, Sweden, and other developed countries made plans for intelligent and unmanned mining. At the Stobie Mine, an underground mine belonging to the International Nickel Company of Canada, Ltd. and a typical example of such an automated mine, mobile devices such as scrapers, rock drills, and underground mining trucks are operated remotely and workers can operate the equipment directly from the central control room on the surface [4]. According to the Canadian government’s 2050 long-range plan, Canada intends to transform one of its underground mines in the northern part of the country into an unmanned mine. The plan states that all devices will be controlled from Sudbury via satellite in order to achieve intelligent and unmanned mining. Another intelligent mining program covering 28 topics—including the real-time process control of mining, real-time management of resources, construction of a mine information network, and application of new technology and automatic control—was carried out in Finland. Sweden has developed the Grountecknik 2000 strategic plan for mine automation [5], [6], [7], and veteran mining equipment companies such as Atlas Copco are actively developing a series of unmanned underground gold mining equipment and related control systems that can be used to implement the strategic plan. One of the most famous institutes in unmanned vehicles, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization of Australia, is making great efforts to achieve the intelligent mining of underground mines, with a particular focus on the unmanned control of various types of equipment [8].

    Although these developed countries have already invested a considerable amount of time and money into the study of intelligent mining, only a few related studies have been carried out in China, especially in the field of intelligent equipment and platforms. In order to rapidly advance its intelligent mining capabilities, China is supporting many intelligent mining projects, including the Key Technology and Software Development for Digital Mining project and the High-Precision Positioning for Underground Unmanned Mining Equipment and Intelligent Unmanned Scraper Model Research project. In particular, a project titled Intelligent Mining Technology for Underground Metal Mines was established during the 12th Five-Year Plan, in order to promote intelligent mining technology to a certain extent. This article introduces several research achievements and their applications in this project. Trackless mining equipment such as rock-drilling jumbos, down-the-hole (DTH) drills, underground scrapers, underground mining trucks, and underground charging vehicles have been developed using intelligent technologies. Suitable communication techniques, sensors, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, information technology, and computer technology for mining equipment and platforms have been implemented. The experimental results indicate that some of the system’s functionalities are innovative and show good performance.

    2. Intelligent mining

    Mining is one of the oldest industries in the world. environmental protection equipment techniques have passed through a rapid change from artificial production, mechanized production, and on-site remote-control production, to intelligent and fully automated production. In order to move the mining industry forward, mechanization tools have been developed, single-equipment and independent systems have been automated, and the entire mining production process has been highly automated [9]. By integrating information technology with the industrialization of mining technology, intelligent mining technology has been rapidly developed, based on mechanized and automated mining, as shown in Fig. 1. This has resulted in the gradual upgrading of intelligent processes in mining equipment; unmanned and centralized mining equipment have now entered the stage of practical application, which will significantly advance the automation and information technology used in mining [10].

    Integrated communication, sensors, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, information technologies, computer technologies, and unmanned control equipment were combined in order to achieve intelligent mining technologies, as shown in Fig. 2. Such technologies are based on precise, reliable, and accurate decision-making and production process management through real-time monitoring; they allow mine production to be maintained at the optimum level, and lead to improved mining efficiency and economic benefits. In this way, green, safe, and efficient mining can be achieved.

    Taking a typical trackless mining technology as an example, intelligent mining technology can be divided into three layers—the control layer, transport layer, and executive layer [11].

    As shown in Fig. 3, the executive layer mainly consists of trackless mining equipment such as rock-drilling jumbos, DTH drills, underground scrapers, underground mining trucks, or underground charging vehicles. The transport layer mainly includes a ubiquitous information-acquisition system, wireless communication system, and precise positioning and intelligent navigation system. The control layer is designed as a system-level platform, and is responsible for intelligent mining process scheduling and control. This is the core of the entire system, because all intelligent mining-related functions and control ideas are implemented through this platform. First, a reasonable gold and diamond mining equipment plan is designed by analyzing the reserves of mine resources and geological conditions in combination with the underground production schedule. Next, an intelligent scheduling and control platform is developed. Control instructions for the equipment are sent through the transport layer to a specific piece of equipment in order to perform a mining task at a specific position and time. Within the executive layer, the control layer collects current information on the tunnel and basic information about the vehicle in real time; this information can be used to determine the location of the equipment or adjust it at any time until that entire stage of the mining plan is successfully completed.

    Intelligent trackless mining technology is based on intelligent unmanned equipment at the executive layer, such as rock-drilling jumbos, DTH drills, underground scrapers, underground mining trucks, or underground charging vehicles. The functions of intelligent and unmanned diamond mining equipment differ according to the different tasks each piece of equipment must carry out.

    3.1. Intelligent rock-drilling jumbo

    Rock drilling is the key process in mining, and plays a very important role in productivity, cost, and efficiency. Different geological conditions require different mining methods, and different methods require different types of rock drilling. A hydraulic rock-drilling jumbo is needed for medium-length hole drilling (i.e., depth of 20–30?m, diameter of 60–100?mm) [12]. An intelligent and unmanned rock-drilling jumbo has been designed to support intelligent mining technology and efficiently complete drilling work.

    Remote control and a virtual-reality display were the first basic technologies implemented in the unmanned hydraulic rock-drilling jumbo. Fig. 4 shows the initial unmanned control platform for the jumbo on the surface. The virtual prototype display system, including on-site audio and video signals, is well-integrated in order to increase the feeling of immersion while performing remote-control operations.

    Furthermore, the rock-drilling jumbo is autonomously controlled and operated in the tunnel under the guidance of a positioning and navigation system. By coordinating the positioning system and altitude control system, the jumbo can achieve autonomous driving to the location from the dispatch layer. This is a major step toward achieving continuous operation without interference. Given the coordinates of the drilling-hole position in the three-dimensional (3D) digital map of the mine, the identification of the stope top and floor and the accurate positioning of the rock-drilling system can be achieved independently. This provides a basis for unmanned operation. The intelligent control flow diagram is shown in Fig. 5.


    The rock-drilling parameters are independently adjusted according to the rock conditions. The intelligent rock-drilling jumbo (shown in Fig. 6) is equipped with components for intelligent blockage prevention, rock-characteristic acquisition, and frequency matching; an automatic rod function; and a fully automatic drill-pipe bank. The hole-blasting parameters are specified independently, according to the scheduling system that is used, in order to ensure continuous drilling.

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  Recommended Standards From CEN Info FastTip#86
Posted by: FrankJScott - 09-19-2021, 03:07 PM - Forum: Politics - Replies (1)

The Standardization Of The Industry Of Food As Well As The Steps To Develop It
The 21st century is expected to see an increase in the popularity of molecular-based research in food, as well as the development of innovative technologies for food processing. The 21st century is a time when the health of people is now a major concern for security both and when it comes to developing businesses or subcategories. The technological and scientific developments have become more complicated due to the increasing globalization of technology as well as the exchange between countries of some accomplishments. This is why it's becoming increasingly important to establish rules of law that govern the activities of these groups and ensure that they do not have significant differences. To allow the development of new technologies in any industry such as the food industry, as well as in molecular research, to proceed most harmoniously internationally, standards are being developed both at the national and local as well as supranational and global levels. We'll share some of the most important international food standards today. See more at this cen catalog tc cen-tc-155-wg-15 collection.

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International Regulation Of It Technologies across a variety of Spheres Of Human Life Through International Standardization
Despite the advancements in wireless technology and constant innovation the wire transmission of electricity and energy is still used extensively today. Because this technology category is the most widespread and widespread, a single scientific and platform for technology is developed for the whole system. This allows every country to receive specific instructions and guidelines regarding their use, implementation, troubleshooting, and maintenance. It is essential to adhere to international standards and guidelines in order to maximize the benefits of the technologies mentioned above. Cables as well as the equipment that goes with them are employed in almost every aspect of human activity. Cables and their accompanying equipment are employed in every field of human activities. We recommend you become aware of the international standards. Check out more at this cen catalog standards en-iso-10399-2018 collection.

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International Standards For Devices
The human health aspect is not a determinable factor, and it is difficult for us to accurately predict the course of events. The last year has demonstrated that medicine can have a profound influence not only on the system in which it is operating as well as other global systems that are both economic and financial. This is due to the increase in the amount of businesses and industries which are entering this area, as well as the increasing number of regulations. Below we will give you a list of the most relevant international standards for the use and manufacture of medical devices in the present. This list can serve as a starting point for your company's development. You can find information at this cen catalog standards cr-14061-2000 site.

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Standardization of Electrical Equipment and Related Appliances
The technical characteristics of the equipment and the associated devices include a wide variety of characteristics that could affect the final result when creating a well-functioning system. The introduction of international standards for businesses and organizations is one way to regulate businesses' international interactions. To be able to evaluate the technology of electricity and other technologies that are related be sure to take into account both external influences and insider specifics. International standards were developed to guide application, implementation, as well as innovative improvements. This week we will highlight the most important ones for companies that make use of components like cables. Check out more at this cen catalog standards fpren-17281 homepage.

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International Standardization For The Safe Use Of Electrical Equipment
To address the issue of safety It is essential that we understand that the development of a technological basis for production or an institution that has contact with human labor is very important. As we enter the 21st century the application of diverse technology is growing and an increasing number of automated processes are being developed, therefore the use of electronic devices is accountable for the consistency and quality of the operation of this system. The globalization of markets as well as the exchange of technology between nations implies that there is an urgent need for a common regulation system. International Standards are one of these. We'll be discussing some of the most significant documents in the field of regulation for cable and identifying the standards that could be applicable to which types of organizations. Check out details at this sist catalog standards sist-en-60034-12-2018 page.

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  Compra De Seguidores Instagram FastTip#58
Posted by: FrankJScott - 09-19-2021, 12:23 PM - Forum: Politics - No Replies

Standardization of Industrial Materials and Mechanical Properties
Many organizations and institutions regulate the international market for products and services. Some companies focus on international development, while others are more attentive to local regulations and rules. This is because of differences in how international standards apply to different companies and organizations. Today, among the most universal documents regulating both the activities of both small and large corporations is the international ISO standards. These standards can assist you to not only organize existing processes but also allow you to work more quickly. Today we'll present to you some of the current most pertinent material specifications for industrial use. See info at this cen catalog standards en-408-1995 blog.

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Security Measures and International Iso Standards
Transport systems are among the most favored system in the world. Because of our human desire to move, an entire industry was created. Numerous authorities are accountable for the oversight of international transport systems. This is because we are concerned about safety. A significant portion of the world market for services and goods includes tasks related to maintenance of transportation and transport. With the growth of new companies with increasing demand. In these situations, it becomes more urgent to regulate quality and safety concerns at a global level. These documents, also known as international standards, are accountable for this problem. Today we will introduce you to the basic guidelines and recommendations of the international standardization bodies within the transportation systems industry. You can find info at this iso catalog standards iec-dis-81001-5-1 homepage.

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International Standards for Devices
Human health is an aspect that is impossible to predict and is difficult to assess the evolution of the events. The past year has demonstrated that the medical field has a major impact not just on the way it functions but also on other systems in the world including financial, economic and. Due to the fact that every day , companies and industries appear within this field, the amount of regulations regulating this activity is also increasing. Below is a list of international standards that govern the manufacture and use of medical devices. We hope this information will assist you in establishing an exciting new chapter in your organization's development. Check out details at this sist catalog standards sist-en-300-392-3-13-v1.2.1-2020 homepage.

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Standardization of Electrical Equipment & Related Appliances
A large variety of technical characteristics can influence the final results of a functioning system. The creation of international standards for businesses and organizations can be a way of regulating businesses' international interactions. It is essential to think about both internal and external influences on electrical power and related technologies. In order to ensure that the international standards are followed when it comes to the implementation of new technology and its application, they have been developed. We will provide you with the principal standards applicable to components like cables in industries. Check out info at this sist catalog standards sist-en-9300-012-2014 collection.

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Standards For Transportation Systems
One of the most highly desired industries of the 21stcentury is the transportation system. This is due to the fact that the transportation system, despite all of the latest technologies that are being developed directly impacts the health of people. Therefore, many regulations have been developed for this sector. ISO international standards are by far the most popular type of act. These international standards will help you ensure that you have all the necessary documents in order to avoid any potential risks. Below you will find the latest standards in the field of transportation. See info at this cen catalog standards en-2498-1990 page.

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  Solve my language questions for the fourth grade of primary school, first semester
Posted by: merehan - 09-19-2021, 05:14 AM - Forum: Politics - No Replies

Objectives of teaching my language
Preserving the tongue from error, keeping the pen from slipping, and forming sound linguistic habits.
Familiarize students with the power of observation and logical thinking.
Raising the faculty of deduction, judgment, reasoning, and other mental benefits that accrue to it by following the method of induction in studying grammar.

Using the rules to understand the words in the correct way, which helps to understand the meanings quickly
Providing students with the ability to use grammar in different linguistic situations.
Teaching students the basics of proper writing and the speed of correct drawing of the words they need in written expression.

The ability to understand and taste the text and extract pictures and images in proportion to the stage.
Develop the ability of dialogue and communication between people and communicate with them.
Develop the ability to listen well so that the student can focus attention on what she hears
The student acquires the ability to read aloud so that the words are pronounced correctly and the meanings are performed well

Increasing the student's linguistic wealth and developing information, experiences and culture, including its subjects of literature, culture and science.
You acquire the etiquette of speaking, especially good listening and respect for others


TRANSLATED FROM:
عروض بوربوينت للوحدة
بوربوينت المهارات الرقمية متوسط
تحضير حلقة ولقاء اخير

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